Remarkable 'zombie star' exploded, survived - and then kept on exploding

Supernova brightness

That is, until now.For the first time, astronomers have discovered a star that has gone supernova more than once. "You think of a supernova as a death of a star, and you think of death as something that only happens once".

In this kind of stellar death, a star that has about 105 solar masses (one solar mass is equal to the mass of our sun) dies in an explosion, but instabilities produce several outbursts over an extended period of time, which would fit with iPTF14hls.

Harvard University's astronomy chairman, Avi Loeb, who was not involved in the study, speculates a black hole or magnetar - a neutron star with a strong magnetic field - might be at the centre of this never-before-seen behaviour. During this time, the star repeatedly grew brighter and fainter up to five times. "It's the biggest puzzle I've encountered in nearly a decade of studying stellar explosions". "They don't know a damn thing about it". And while a typical supernova gets cooler as time goes on, this one stayed about the same temperature. When those two meet they annihilate each other, creating an explosion that blasts away some of the outer layers of the star without destroying the core. Typically, they continue to shine for roughly 100 days and over time they begin to fade.

According to one theory, some stars with a mass between 95 and 130 times that of the Sun can explode several times in cyclic deaths. These types of supernovas occur when a star eight to 15 times that of our own sun exhausts its energy and explodes. "But it predicts that the star should lose all of hydrogen in the first explosion". Rather than undergoing core-collapse, these huge stars burn so hot that their radiation spontaneously converts into electron-positron pairs, calculations suggest.

The radiation pressure from gamma rays stops a star from collapsing under gravity. It then contracts, then explodes, in a halting heave-ho. This was thought to be end awaiting all stars - until now. He searched a vast archive of old photographic plates from the Palomar Optical Sky Survey that he knew had been digitized and put online.

But a subsequent image of the galaxy in 1993 showed no sign of the supernova. But the supernova, known as iPTF14hls, keeps on burning. It's hard to estimate the statistical significance of a signal in a digitized image of a photographic plate, Nugent said.

"So, if iPTF14hls is the first pulsational pair instability supernova then the theory needs to be revised". But although Arcavi, Howell and their Las Cumbres colleagues offer the PPISN idea as the leading explanation for iPTF14hls in their paper, the theory is not without problems. "This one just really blew away everything we thought we understood about them", said astrophysicist Iair Arcavi of the University of California, Santa Barbara who led the study.

For one thing, the huge energy released in the course of iPTF14hls's known explosions (and there may have been more) already surpasses Woosley's predictions for how much energy the pair-instability mechanism can muster. The fresh raw ingredients in dwarf galaxies allow huge stars to form, like pumpkins in fertile soil.

"It begs the question: how many have we missed in the past?" he said. "So it's a dinosaur or something". "Otherwise, it's something completely new", Arcavi added.

"We could not have kept tabs on iPTF14hls for this long and collected data that challenges all existing supernova theories if it weren't for the global telescope network", said Arcavi.

"As of now, no detailed model has been published that can explain the observed emission and constant temperature of iPTF14hls, let alone the possible eruption 60 years ago", he wrote.

The fact that astronomers has spotted a supernova that has apparently "risen from the dead" is truly puzzling to science.

The odd supernova is still bright today, more than three years after it was first discovered. "So they're not just wrinkles on an old theme; they are beasts". Its light has attenuated to one-twentieth its peak brightness. It would also result in multiple shells of expanding material like the one we've already seen. Further monitoring may better explain what's going on, he said.

Related News:

  • Bakersfield native and former National Football League  player is primary suspect in wife's death

    Bakersfield native and former National Football League player is primary suspect in wife's death

    This comes as charges were filed against McClanahan for allegedly kidnapping his own 8-year-old son from school last month. Keri McClanahan reportedly fled from her husband multiple times since and had recently gone to Utah, the Tribune reported.
    Penn State Nittany Lions vs. Michigan State Spartans Preview and Prediction

    Penn State Nittany Lions vs. Michigan State Spartans Preview and Prediction

    The Nittany Lions have a ton of talent on offense, including running back Saquon Barkley, arguably the best player in the nation. Barrett had a career day against a Penn State defense that had been playing really well this season.
    Major blasts hits Somali capital Mogadishu

    Major blasts hits Somali capital Mogadishu

    The US military has increased its strikes against al Shabaab this year with nearly 20 drone missions against the terror group. Witnesses said gunmen stormed Nasa-Hablod hotel after detonating a vehicle filled with explosives at the entrance.
  • Germany officially recognizing third gender at birth

    The lower court said it was not possible to be registered as third gender because Vanja could leave the gender identity blank. Though chromosome analysis found the person neither male nor female, the case failed in all previous instances.
    Apple's Engineer fired for the daughter's small mistake

    Apple's Engineer fired for the daughter's small mistake

    With that said, the iPhone X's display is probably as expensive to replace a Galaxy S8's display, which could cost around RM1,500. In response to Pixel 2 screen burn-in and other issues, Google has increased the warranty offered on its newest smartphones.
    Bungie admits errors when banning Destiny 2 PC players

    Bungie admits errors when banning Destiny 2 PC players

    If you have been banned and not claimed a refund, it would be worth checking to see if your account has been unbanned. There have been bans on their accounts as well, providing no real reason as to why this issue has been happening.
  • Check smoke detectors before time change this weekend

    Check smoke detectors before time change this weekend

    They say since recent events the calls have increased and she says they're going to need help from the community. The goal is to provide and install lithium battery smoke alarms , regardless of race, income or demographics.
    Nintendo Announce Black Friday Zelda Bundles!

    Nintendo Announce Black Friday Zelda Bundles!

    There's no new game content in this particular bundle and customers won't even get the DLC that has been released for it so far. The package comes with the green 2DS, AC adapter, and The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 3D pre-installed.
    Colton Haynes & Jeff Leatham Get Married After an 8-Month Relationship

    Colton Haynes & Jeff Leatham Get Married After an 8-Month Relationship

    When you learn to really love someone, it's completely life-changing. "It's just wonderful when you find someone who kind of teaches you to love yourself more", Haynes said.
  • Intel and AMD are working together on a new laptop chip

    Intel and AMD are working together on a new laptop chip

    ILLEGAL ACTIVITY WARNING: This article was originally reported by Week Herald and is the sole property of of Week Herald. Advanced Micro Devices has a 1 year low of $6.22 and a 1 year high of $15.65. (NASDAQ: AMD ) opened at 8.71 on Friday.
    Google goes head to head with Microsoft for heart of 3D creators

    Google goes head to head with Microsoft for heart of 3D creators

    With the rise in the availability of 3D content on the web, the need for sharing platforms for 3D objects has also risen. Those who want to use Poly creations outside of Blocks and Tilt Brush can simply download them in OBJ form.
    Bears lose Zach Miller to gruesome leg injury on negated touchdown

    Bears lose Zach Miller to gruesome leg injury on negated touchdown

    Adding insult to injury, the officials then reviewed the play and overturned the touchdown, ruling Muller didn't make the catch. The Bears also lost RG Kyle Long (left hand) and C Cody Whitehair (elbow) to injury and did not return.

Most liked

That naked auto crash in Edmonton was actually a kidnapping
About 15 minutes later, on the road near Nisku, the man managed to get out of the trunk of the moving vehicle . The kidnapping suspects have not been named and it's unclear why they were naked at the scene of the crash.

Roy Halladay Latest News, Photos, and Videos
The spokesperson for the Sheriff's office said the National Transportation Safety Board will be leading the investigation. They said they couldn't confirm if there were additional passengers on the plane or say where it was headed.

United Kingdom says Briton kidnapped in Nigeria last month killed, three others released
Squire was an optician who had set up his own charity to save people's sight in countries including Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya and Mozambique.

Nokia 5 is now available in 3GB RAM Variant
This variant ( Nokia 5 3GB RAM ) will also be exclusively available from Flipkart starting November 7 and selected retail outlets. HMD Global has announced that it is launching a new version of the Nokia 5 phone in the country, which includes 3GB of RAM.

Jennifer Lawrence and Kim Kardashian West Is the Friendship We Deserve
"So do you and Kanye , like, fart in front of each other?" Lawrence asked at one point. Watch the rest of the hilarious interview below.

Beyonce Slays While Channeling Lil' Kim for Halloween
She completed the look with black sunglasses and ever wore a wig to match Lil' Kim's dark locks in the video. Perhaps the most recognizable look was the white shirt paired with Chanel suspenders and red pants .

Panthers run for 201 yards in 20-17 win over Falcons
Add in poor situational coaching on offense and the Falcons have a mess on their hands as they head home to face the Cowboys. Adams left the game in the fourth quarter with a shoulder injury, however, and wasn't involved in the Panthers' final stop.

Two-year-old toddler among at least 27 dead — TEXAS HORROR
Lord have mercy", tweeted Russell Moore of the Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention. The shooter has been "taken down", Wilson County Sheriff Joe Tackett was quoted as saying by The Wilson County News .

Eddie Howe wants goals in Bournemouth's "season-defining" trip to Newcastle
Newcastle , with Dwight Gayle and Isaac Hayden recalled to the starting XI , were dominant before the break. A late goal from Steve Cook gave Eddie Howe's side a hard-fought 1-0 victory at St James's Park .

Costello to start against Washington State
San Francisco, the major city closest to Stanford's campus in Palo Alto, recently went 35 years without snowfall . Washington State has had an up-and-down month, but the Cougars are pretty tough at home.

Tester, Daines Grill Officials Over Whitefish Energy Contract
Byrne stopped short of committing to meeting Rossello's benchmark of restoring 95 percent of power by mid-December. According to PREPA head Ricardo Ramos, FEMA approved the Whitefish deal, but FEMA officials said they did not.

For Halloween, Hillary Clinton Will Dress Up as ... the President
The former Democratic presidential candidate was interviewed in front of a large group of supporters by author Cheryl Strayed on Monday night.

Jose Mourinho names three Man United players who starred against Tottenham
He subsequently said when asked about the gesture: "Some people speak too much.calm down, relax". "With him (I am) very pleased". The setback was in stark contrast to the ruthlessness which Spurs showed in their 4-1 demolition against Liverpool last weekend.

Texans take knee to protest owner's controversial comment
A Texans offensive starter told ESPN that the team would meet Saturday night "to discuss a demonstration tomorrow". I would never characterize our players or our league that way and I apologize to anyone who was offended by it.

Houston Astros Player Under Fire for Racist Gesture
After Gurriel hit a home run off the Dodgers' Yu Darvish in Friday's game, Gurriel returned to the Astros' dugout. The unpaid suspension will be served at the start of the 2018 season, and Gurriel will not appeal.